270 likes. The Roman Empire possessed a special fondness for the practice of political espionage, in both foreign and domestic political operations. The usual guess is that the Peregrini consisted of all of those soldiers, who had been detached to Rome from their mother units, so  they consisted of the Frumentarii, Speculatores (housed in the same camp), and of any other detached soldiers, but it is also possible that there existed a separate group of Peregrini, who served as a sort of secret service. La DCRI est l'oeuvre de Nicolas Sarkozy qui l'a créée le 28 juin 2008 et l'a confiée naturellement à celui qui nage dans son sillage depuis 2002. Il y a une double lecture, si on compare les loisirs de l'espion du président et le Manuel de Kubark que je vous invite à vous procurer au plus vite. By the third century, Roman authors noted the pervasiveness and excessive censorship of the secret police forces, likening them to an authoritative force or an occupational army. Veröffentlicht am 23 May 2019. Vous comprendrez vite. Der Erste Weltkrieg wird in der Schweiz auch als Grenzbesetzung 1914–1918 bezeichnet. Presque un roman d'espionnage qui se déroule au temps de la chute de Byzance en 1453. J'écris "a priori", car... que c'est ennuyeux ! Bon travail d'enquête sur une face cachée de la vie politique de notre pays, Rezension aus Frankreich vom 8. Romans carried out their domestic and foreign policy objectives, but good intelligence analysts know,  not all information is ‘intelligence.’. The opinions and actions of the people and in particular of the upper classes were To conclude, the Frumentarii, Beneficiarii, Speculatores and Exploratores were heavily involved in the violent persecutions of Christians and were most probably the ones who carried out assassinations and tortures. Provincial guards also employed them for similar purposes. Um die Gesamtbewertung der Sterne und die prozentuale Aufschlüsselung nach Sternen zu berechnen, verwenden wir keinen einfachen Durchschnitt. For example The emperor Gordian sent a secret letter, was described by the historian Herodian, as having been folded in a manner, that was, ‘the normal method used by the emperor to send private, secret messages.’. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'espionage' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. Juni 2019. Political espionage was not limited to the more contentious parts of the Roman periphery, but also practiced in Rome itself, by rival factions of the government. Cicero, for example, also mentions in a letter that his epigrams were reported to Caesar, who could distinguish between the authentic ones and those falsely attributed to him. Termes reliés (1) Romanciers anglais. Intelligence is restricted to crucial information about the target or enemy–his strength, location, likely intentions, and capabilities. Le style est lourd et sinueux. Even if intelligence is collected and analyzed correctly, it will be of no value if the product is not conveyed to the end user, in sufficient time for him to act upon it. ELLE A ÉTAIT REMPLACÉ PAR l'ACTUEL DGSI OU DIRECTION GÉNÉRALE DE LA SÉCURITÉ INTÉRIEURE). Over a millennium, the Romans created the largest empire of the ancient world, necessitating the governance by the most expansive infrastructure, military, and bureaucracy for the period. By furnishing a means of transport and communications, Augustus built the rudiments of what  became the Imperial Security Service. Roman familial anglais. He established a rapid message and information transport systems, via couriers,. Read reviews from world’s largest community for readers. From the third century, the spies in question are likely to have included also the Protectores Domestici. Weitere Informationen zum Programm. The most notorious intelligence gathering organization of the early emperors, was the unit of Frumentarii. Alongside the frumentarii, who operated in disguise. He hid in his house for four days. Rezension aus Frankreich vom 16. Wenn Sie Verkäufer sind, kann Versand durch Amazon Ihnen dabei helfen, Ihre Umsätze zu steigern. Roman expérimental anglais. Foreign correspondent was deemed ‘no job for a female’ between the wars. ), violoncelliste professionnel de renom, qui composa ici son premier roman, est un coup de maître mais aussi un de mes coups de cœur absolus de ces dernières années. The 300 Speculatores (Spies) formed Augustus’s personal bodyguards. Roman populaire anglais. Augustus’s contribution to the system was to make it a formal part of the imperial administration, which was maintained by the state and his successors. It was with Diocletian ,the figure of the secret agent was institutionalized with the birth of the agentes in rebus, which were formed and were considered to all effects a militia; they were distinguished in various professionalities, mainly in equités, circitores, biarchi, centenarii, ducenarii and they monitored the entire Roman province, as a control superior to the local governors, for this reason they were very feared, depending on their relations, their career or life itself , depended on them. Preise inkl. Though, much of the cloak-and-dagger work of senatorial politics is forever lost to us, it is not hard to imagine what forms it took. It is probable the Peregrini formed a mysterious group of Roman spies, who operated in foreign lands disguised as traders, but it is even more likely that the Peregrini included also actual foreigners, who served as spies in their own countries under their Roman handlers (the Speculatores). Die Schweiz wurde im Ersten Weltkrieg – obwohl ab 1915 vollständig von kriegführenden Nachbarstaaten umgeben – nicht durch eine Invasion in Mitleidenschaft gezogen. Un ouvrage foisonnant adapté en mini-série avec Michael Keaton. Englisch-Deutsch-Übersetzungen für espionage im Online-Wörterbuch dict.cc (Deutschwörterbuch). (3) Alle Artikel sind mit Amazon Prime für noch schnellere Lieferung bestellbar. Wiederholen Sie die Anforderung später noch einmal. 2019 Bonnotte, Céline « Le truchement » : destin d’une instance de médiation dans les récits de voyage (XVIe-XVIIIe siècles) Nouemsi Njiké, Elvis. Now there would be an official, permanent, and reliable way to communicate political and military intelligence. Wir verwenden Cookies und ähnliche Tools, um Ihr Einkaufserlebnis zu verbessern, um unsere Dienste anzubieten, um zu verstehen, wie die Kunden unsere Dienste nutzen, damit wir Verbesserungen vornehmen können, und um Werbung anzuzeigen. Januar 2012, Rezension aus Frankreich vom 7. L'un après l'autre il a écarté tous ses rivaux. Zugelassene Drittanbieter verwenden diese Tools auch in Verbindung mit der Anzeige von Werbung durch uns. However, discovering traces of intelligence operations, that… It was and is very difficult for a foreigner to pass as a native, hence the need to recruit foreigners and hence the name, Peregrini. Each legion had a detachment of ten Speculatores, to serve as spies and secret police. (Französisch) Taschenbuch – 19. These elite troops were headquartered in the Castra Peregrinaon the Mons Caelius in Rome and operated under the command of the Princeps Peregrinorum, a powerful officer responsible for the security of the Roman State, who answered directly to the emperor. Figures de l’amant dans le roman québécois de l’extrême contemporain : perspectives féminines. As long as Caesar held control of Rome, during the civil war, the city’s population rejoiced with his victories and mourned his losses, at least publicly. The agents were instructed to tell him, they were bringing secret instructions from Maximinus and to request a private audience, in order to pass  secret instructions personally. Roman d'espionnage anglais. During the Cold War, an American lawyer is recruited to defend an arrested Soviet spy in court, and then help the CIA facilitate an exchange of the spy for the Soviet … escaped] him. Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten Aussprache und relevante Diskussionen Kostenloser Vokabeltrainer If the information was not adequate, the emperors were in the habit of sending investigators to obtain additional information. Rezension aus Frankreich vom 24. Missions, methodes, techniques speciales des services secrets au 21e siecle, L'oligarchie des incapables (A.M. POLITIQUE), La République des mallettes - Enquête sur la principauté française de non-droit (Documents). Nur noch 3 auf Lager (mehr ist unterwegs). The Beneficiarii were specialized soldiers who served under military commanders and governors and had administrative and logistical tasks. Mai 2014. Cases in which the great power concentrated in their hands, were translated into illicit conduct, were not rare; the Roman philosopher Libario, openly accused them of “gross conduct” as the emperor’s controllers turned into extortionists, assuming attitudes which terrified the administrators of the provinces, who had no power against them, by any law. Warum ist manteau männlich und montre weiblich? At times, even diplomats and courtiers were sent off to foreign courts to spy on enemy kings or rival emperors. (in Deutschland bis 31.12.2020 gesenkt). Dieser Artikel kann nicht per 1-Click® bestellt werden. The regular intelligence gathering operations along the frontiers were controlled by the local governors and their staffs, but there were occasions when the imperial government sent its own operatives, to obtain additional information, as was custom with the Medes, as well. Bernard Squarcini n'a pas usurpé son surnom. The Gospel of St. Mark 6:27 indicates that it was a speculator, who was sent to the prison with an execution order for John the Baptist. Under Augustus and his successors, the Senate became a mere rubber stamp for the decisions made in the household of the emperor. The agents were disguised as messengers from Maximinus, the emperor’s enemy. Roman grain buyers making purchases from Cumae and Sicily were accused of spying, and consequently were treated with extreme hostility by the local authorities, even to the point of finding their lives in danger. An interview with Nikolay Spasskiy, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to Italy, on his book 'The Byzantine'. Ce livre publié en 2012 nous parle de ce qui serait les dessous de la DCRI (LA DCRI OU DIRECTION CENTRALE DU RENSEIGNEMENT INTÉRIEUR A EXISTÉ ENTRE 2008 ET 2014. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "roman d'espionnage" – Deutsch-Französisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Officiellement, le "FBI à la française" devait se concentrer sur la seule défense de l'intérêt général. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Although the cursus publicus provided a reliable means of transmitting important intelligence, sending dispatches by this method did not ensure sufficient security, if there was a traitor within the system. An interview with Nikolay Spasskiy, Ambassador of the Russian Federation to Italy, on his book 'The Byzantine'. controlled through a variety of means: With the reign of Domitian (a.d. 81-96), or possibly Hadrian (117-138), came another innovation which added more manpower to this intelligence network. Several ancient accounts, especially those of the first century, mention the presence of the frumentarii, who also played a crucial role in breaching the personal security of emperors, as they had a privileged connection to the Praetorian Guard. The exact details of the assassination conspiracy remain a mystery to historians, but records have established  the Roman intelligence community knew of the plot and even provided information to Caesar, or his assistants, including the names of several conspirators. Military Intelligence groups, are as old as civilization itself, and once the steps in the process have been identified, they can be traced to almost any civilization that left historical records. Warum ist Témoin immer männlich und victime immer weiblich? Le sujet est passionnant, et l'enquête a priori bien menée. Französisch Geschlecht ist ein Geduldsspiel für viele Schüler Französisch. military forces (Urbaniciani) operated by the Urban Prefect; censorship of the literary works and other works of art, private informers (delatores) who were encouraged to come forth with rewards, soldiers or bodyguards disguised as civilians. As seniors they were promoted to officii princeps of the Praetorian prefectures, where they exercised their control action on the bureaucracy, enjoying both civil and criminal judicial immunity; some were appointed inspectors (curious), performing their function above the provinces. Concern about government rivalries, necessitated the creation of the agentes in rebus, the first exclusive counterintelligence force. Prime-Mitglieder genießen Zugang zu schnellem und kostenlosem Versand, tausenden Filmen und Serienepisoden mit Prime Video und vielen weiteren exklusiven Vorteilen. Spies help agencies uncover secret information. In addition to this, Augustus made the Praetorians and foreign bodyguards permanent units. As evidence from the panels of the Trajan’s Column in Rome shows, they were given first-class horses and equipment, in order to increase their mobility when carrying out combat intelligence missions behind enemy lines, such as raids, attacks on enemy outposts, and foraging operations. Didier Hassoux est journaliste au Canard enchaîné, et l'auteur de Sarkozy et l'argent roi publié chez Calmann-Lévy en 2008. Dommage. Geben Sie es weiter, tauschen Sie es ein, © 1998-2020, Amazon.com, Inc. oder Tochtergesellschaften, Entdecken Sie Christophe Labbé bei Amazon, Übersetzen Sie alle Bewertungen auf Deutsch, Lieferung verfolgen oder Bestellung anzeigen, Recycling (einschließlich Entsorgung von Elektro- & Elektronikaltgeräten). It was the ability of the spies to penetrate the palaces, that caused the Romans and Persians to use disinformation and secrecy to hide their plans. Nouvelle édition parue en 2019 Spécial Ken Follett Les piliers de la terre, la colonne de feu, des romans d'espionnage et la trilogie du siècle. Stattdessen betrachtet unser System Faktoren wie die Aktualität einer Rezension und ob der Rezensent den Artikel bei Amazon gekauft hat. In any case, he was smart enough to realize, intelligence reforms were long overdue. Dezember 2013. All of the bodyguard units and regular soldiers, could be used as undercover operatives to spy upon the populace and for any variety of other missions -even in secret missions like assassinations or arrests, which were usually entrusted to the Praetorians and/or Speculatores. Weitere. religious institutions which were apparently controlled personally by the emperor through his office as Pontifex Maximus. Sie benötigen das Geschlecht eines Französisch Nomen wissen? Ihre Vorteile: (1) Lieferung ab 29 EUR Bestellwert (Bücher, Bekleidung und Schuhe generell versandkostenfrei, auch zusammen mit Media-Produkten). Messengers of the public post, traveled on wagons and carts all the way up to the recipient, so the messenger could be interrogated in person, for additional pieces of information. Il dirige aujourd'hui le plus puissant service de contre-espionnage que la France ait jamais connu : la Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur. Moi-même confronté à ces gens, je peux vous dire que tout cela réunie + caméras thermiques et émetteur infrason. The Praetorian Guard or Cohors Praetoriae, were used by emperors as means of terror tactics, assassinations, and gathering of intelligence, similarly to the Frumentarii. The Castra Peregrina, received its name from the Peregrini, but it is not known who these mysterious men were. -used as messengers, spies and assassins, but eventually became synonymous with the abuse of power. Es liegen 0 Rezensionen und 0 Bewertungen aus Deutschland vor, Entdecken Sie jetzt alle Amazon Prime-Vorteile. Some centuries later, they occupied important offices of government, acting as oppressors and extortionists of the provinces, and fomented the hatred of those who suffered their abuses. Espionnage is a folkish duo playing little acoustic tunes for You! Nachdem Sie Produktseiten oder Suchergebnisse angesehen haben, finden Sie hier eine einfache Möglichkeit, diese Seiten wiederzufinden. Rome’s most famous case of espionage and intrigue, culminated in the assassination of Julius Caesar on March 15, 44 b.c. Translation for 'roman d'espionnage' in the free French-English dictionary and many other English translations. His scouts and spies, used counterintelligence techniques, such as codes and ciphers, to prevent his military plans from falling into the hands of the enemy. The detested frumentarii  were abolished by Diocletian, but were soon replaced by ‘agents in rebus’ perhaps purposely ill-defined, who likewise served as couriers between the court (comitatus). Espionnage. Manuele, Vincent The most enterprising, however,  were armed and, if necessary, they had the license to pass traitors to arms; this marks the passage from a body dedicated to gathering information, to a judging and executive body. As secret police agents, the frumentarii , participated in the persecution of Christians. Roman d'amour et d'espionnage book. Presque un roman d'espionnage qui se déroule au temps de la chute de Byzance en 1453. Spies were also prevalent in the Greek and Roman empires. Though, the Romans used secret ciphers to hide the content of the message, when necessary, they also had a a system of guard towers placed at strategic locales, along the frontiers to transmit messages of approaching enemy forces, by using fire, smoke signals, or mirrors. A person who commits espionage is called an espionage agent or spy. Some according to their personal attitudes, changed their passive role as a listener to secret courier. USt. The Speculatores operated alongside of the Cohors Praetoriae in Rome, in particular of the Equites  Singulares Augusti, were led by a Centurio Speculatorum Augustorum, a powerful Praetorian officer. Knut Erik Jensen has often tackled the subject of espio-nage. The principal security concern of Augustus, was to secure his own position, against domestic enemies among the senatorial class. Clandestine and covert operations usually garner the most intrigue, but the history of espionage is better described in terms of evolution, as mundane components of trade craft grew from small, privately orchestrated networks, to a nationalized one, while  nobility took its family interests into the foreign-policy arena. Feudal Japan often used shinobi to gather intelligence. At times, they also acted as assassins and torturers, on behalf of the emperor. In 1994, he and Alf Reidar Jacobsen made the doc-umentary “Min Kjære venn” (“My Dear Friend”), with and about Vladimir Kozlov, the Russian lover of Soviet mole Gunvor Galtung Haavik (1912 – 1977). Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "espionnage" – Deutsch-Französisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen. In Gordian’s case, the message was sent to the governor of Mauretania Caesariensis, as part of a covert operation. During the 13th and 14th centuries, the Mongols relied heavily on espionage in their conquests in Asia and Europe. Traduzioni in contesto per "roman d'espionnage" in francese-italiano da Reverso Context: Peut-être qu'ils ont aidé l'homme mystérieux de Mia Bolton avec son roman d'espionnage. Jamais un service de renseignement n'aura été autant instrumentalisé au profit d'un seul homme, Nicolas Sarkozy. As is often the case, the information from the intelligence community, was ignored. On June 15, 1917, some two months after America’s formal entrance into World War I against Germany, the United States Congress passes the Espionage Act. However, discovering traces of intelligence operations, that occurred 2,000  years ago–which even then, were meant to be secret–is no small task, but it is not an impossible one. As successor, Augustus, had a better opportunity, to develop the system Caesar started. Originally, the Frumentarii, Beneficiarii,  Speculatores and Exploratores. Meanwhile the frumentarius searched high and low, but never thought to search the man’s house. Je nach Lieferadresse kann die USt. Frumentarii were housed in the Castra Peregrina/Peregrinorum (Camp of the Foreigners or Strangers) on the Caelian Hill. Le maître britannique du roman d’espionnage John Le Carré, qui a vendu plus de 60 millions de livres dans le monde, est décédé d’une pneumonie Jeanmarcmorandini.com 1:21 They knew the governor, Vitalianus, usually went to a small room, off the public court, where he could scrutinize the dispatches carefully. Momentanes Problem beim Laden dieses Menüs. Retour sur la guerre froide avec La Compagnie, roman d’espionnage de Robert Littell qui nous balade de Berlin à Budapest, en passant par Cuba, la Crimée ou encore la Russie et l’Afghanistan sur plus de 40 ans d’histoire. All the “insiders” of the intelligence worked in the regime during wartime, but during the periods of peace, many were diverted to other positions, leaving the job of informers, to merchants and diplomats; the Magister officiorum, the high official on whom they depended, kept them under strict control, and given the strategic importance of their knowledge. the invasion quickly with this system, but the means of delivery meant,  such messages could not contain many details. [Justinian, on the other hand, by refusing to spend anything at all on them] blotted out (2) Kombinieren und sparen - bestellen Sie bei Amazon.de oder Verkaufspartnern, die den Versand durch Amazon nutzen, wird Ihre Bestellung zu einer Lieferung zusammengefasst. Außerdem analysiert es Rezensionen, um die Vertrauenswürdigkeit zu überprüfen. The most important matters of the state, including all details related to espionage, were discussed and analyzed in the Consilium (Council) of the emperor. In Imperial times, particularly during the reign of emperor Hadrian, these units gradually became part of a secret service body, who loyally served the Princeps. Polar africain et enjeux de justice. Roman sentimental anglais. ZBV (Abkürzung für Zur besonderen Verwendung) ist eine 50-bändige Roman-Serie des deutschen Science Fiction-Autors Karl-Herbert Scheer. Also, good intelligence has a time factor; it must be quickly collected, analyzed, and delivered in time for the user to act upon it. Many translated example sentences containing "roman espionnage" – English-French dictionary and search engine for English translations. There also existed, a separate network of horse stations, for urgent military messages by mounted couriers. 19 August 2019. Roman intelligence activities were performed by various units, whose functions often overlapped. The only source to mention the existence of the spies maintained by the Roman state Ihre zuletzt angesehenen Artikel und besonderen Empfehlungen. Wählen Sie die Kategorie aus, in der Sie suchen möchten. Wählen Sie eine Sprache für Ihren Einkauf. As the system of the cursus publicus developed, the couriers were drawn increasingly from the army, especially from the speculatores. See the snapshots overview for more details. For this reason, Augustus set restrictions on the movement of senators and created the professional armed forces (army and navy). Presque un roman d'espionnage qui se déroule au temps de la chute de Byzance en 1453. They were sent forward in screening operations and reconnaissance missions, providing excellent situational awareness to Roman legions. If populations were judged hostile by informants, the military was informed, and engaged the opposing forces. is Procopius: “And the matter of the spies is as follows…. Gauging the political climate of the Empire and surrounding lands, were done by eavesdropping in the Forum or public market spaces. Almost a spy story set at the time of the fall of Byzantium in 1453. an der Kasse variieren. Chosroes, as they say, increased the salaries of his spies and profited by this forethought. Caesar’s military couriers, the speculatores, were kept busy delivering intelligence, but were also given espionage assignments. Bitte versuchen Sie es erneut. Entdecken Sie Empfehlungen, Bestseller und mehr in unserem Shop für französische Bücher. They were in charge of external security; for the internal security, there were also the Speculatores ,who operated silent and cunningly. Leider ist ein Problem beim Speichern Ihrer Cookie-Einstellungen aufgetreten. (February 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message) Espionage or spying is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information or divulging of the same without the permission of the holder of the information. This made the praetorian prefects the most powerful persons right after the emperor and was the reason for the division of the office and also for the posting of the Legio II Parthica close to Rome, at Alba by Septimius Severus (AD 193-211) in about 202.3. 2 Soeurs : Un roman d'espionnage | Matt Kindt, Alain David | ISBN: 9782878270914 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. There is no doubt, the best agents were always those who were native to their own lands and who spied against their own countrymen – they were the traitors, who served the Romans. This type of intelligence campaign, was very successful in the Italian Peninsula during the fourth century b.c., but far less effective in the later campaigns, to conquer North Africa and Northern Europe. The Exploratores were a trained scouting unit to be found in every roman legio. In the social climb of the frumentarii, one reads and understands the decline of Rome; they were involved in the supply of wheat, faithful servants of an ideal and of the Emperor. It is the beginning of the end, of Rome -fidelity has been replaced by egoism, hatred has been substituted for the subjects; as is both in ancient and modern history, as everything is repeated equally, in changing contexts. Quite frequently intelligence couriers, doubled as political assassins. During the third century, the bodyguard units were commanded by one to three praetorian prefects. As an individual who could make the best of the republican system, Caesar coordinated his intelligence assets well. From the reign of Commodus (AD 180-193) onwards, the emperors were in the habit of creating new units of bodyguards, for their own safety. Check out the Unsolved Murders Podcast now! Over 100,000 English translations of French words and phrases. While Vitalianus was examining the seals, they killed him with swords hidden under their cloaks. For example: An account of the Catiline conspiracy  -the most notorious threat to the late republic, had to be quelled by Cicero using bodyguards, who learned of the plot, through the consul’s wide-ranging espionage network. Roman régionaliste anglais. Roman pastoral anglais . Over a millennium, the Romans created the largest empire of the ancient world, necessitating the governance by the most expansive infrastructure, military, and bureaucracy for the period. Mon avis: Ce roman publié en 2014, écrit par un américain black (ça, c’est le terme que je continue d’utiliser pour parler des personnes à la peau noire, malgré les tonnes de politiquement correct en cours aux U.S ! The ever-expanding Roman Empire, often spied on its neighbors. roman translation in French - English Reverso dictionary, see also 'roman noir',roman policier',roman policier',roman d'amour', examples, definition, conjugation Dreams of Divine Retribution and the Ascent of Darius, Jack Ruby Trial Pt 2 Pre Trial and Jail break, Jack Ruby, The Original Trial of the Century pt1, secret agents, police forces/firemen (Vigiles). By the end of the release, all verified accounts will be able to create up to 100 volumes or use a total of 16 TB of volume data per region. Aubinais, Marie (28) Apply Aubinais, Marie filter Beaumont, Emilie (42) Apply Beaumont, Emilie filter Bloch, Serge (62) Apply Bloch, Serge filter Bottero, Pierre (38) Apply Bottero, Pierre filter Bour, Danièle (48) Apply Bour, Danièle filter Bussi, Michel (21) Apply Bussi, Michel filter Camus, Albert (27) Apply Camus, Albert filter Wählen Sie ein Land/eine Region für Ihren Einkauf. September 2017. Sein Ende ist ein Tip-Off. intelligence reports in a timely manner and disseminate official propaganda where needed. Juni 2019. Began the incremental release of new block storage volume limits. Ce site participe au Programme Partenaires d'Amazon EU, un programme d'affiliation conçu pour permettre à des sites de percevoir une rémunération grâce à la création de liens vers Amazon.fr.