L'Ulster /ylstɛʁ/a (en anglais : /ˈɞlstə(ɹ)/b ; en irlandais : Ulaidh /ˈulˠəi/c / Cúige Uladhd /ˈkuːɟə ˈulˠə/c ; en scots d'Ulster : Ulstèr ; en latin : Ultonia) est l'une des quatre provinces historiques de l'île d'Irlande. From 1938 to 1962 it was marked "EIR", short for Éire. In 1798 the United Irishmen, led by Henry Joy McCracken, launched a rebellion in Ulster, mostly supported by Presbyterians. Ireland (/ ˈ aɪər l ə n d / (); Irish: Éire [ˈeːɾʲə] (); Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.It is about 486 kilometres (302 miles) long and about 288 kilometres (179 miles) wide. L'Irlande (en irlandais : Éire [ˈ e ː ɾ ʲ ə] Écouter ; en anglais : Ireland [ˈ a ɪ ə r l ə n d] Écouter ; en scots d'Ulster : Airlann [ˈ ɑ ː r l ə n] ; en latin : Hibernia) est une île de l'archipel des îles Britanniques située dans l'océan Atlantique nord.Troisième plus grande île d'Europe, elle est séparée de la Grande-Bretagne, située à l'est, par la mer d'Irlande. In horse racing, specifically National Hunt, Ulster has produced the most dominant jockey of all time, Tony McCoy. The Orange Order freely organises in counties Donegal, Cavan and Monaghan, with several Orange parades taking place throughout County Donegal each year. The province's highest point, Slieve Donard (848 metres (2,782 ft)), stands in County Down. Loyalist militias, primarily Anglicans, also used violence against the United Irishmen and against Roman Catholic and Protestant republicans throughout the province. These refugees' linguistic influence still survives in the dialects of Irish spoken in Mayo, which have many similarities to Ulster Irish not found elsewhere in Connacht. Classic editor History Talk (0) Share. To the west of Ireland is the Atlantic Ocean; to the east of Ireland, across the Irish Sea, is the island of Great Britain.Over 6.4 million people lived on the island in 2016. Its name derives from the Irish language Cúige Uladh (pronounced "Kooi-gah UH-loo"), meaning "fifth of the Ulaidh", named for the ancient inhabitants of the region. In 1938 the British government provided in the Eire (Confirmation of Agreements) Act 1938 that British legislation would henceforth refer to the Irish Free State as "Eire" (but not as "Ireland"). The most easterly point in Ireland is also in Ulster, in County Down, and the most westerly point in the UK is in County Fermanagh. In early medieval Ireland, a branch of the Northern Uí Néill, the Cenél nEógain of the province of Ailech, gradually eroded the territory of the province of Ulaidh until it lay east of the River Bann. The county covers an area of 1,691 km² (653 sq; mi), with a population of approximately 61,170, with Enniskillen its county town. ^ The Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency[2] for 2011 combined with the preliminary results of Census of Ireland 2011 for Ulster (part of).[3]. Upon the outbreak of World War I in 1914, 200,000 Irishmen, both Southern and Northern, of all religious sects volunteered to serve in the British Army. [24], This article is about the Irish language name of both the island and the state called "Ireland", or sometimes (mistakenly) 'Southern Ireland', in English. The term Ulster has no official function for local government purposes in either country. Belfast is also connected with Carrickfergus and Larne Harbour, Portadown, Newry and onwards, via the Enterprise service jointly operated by NIR and Iarnród Éireann, to Dublin Connolly. [9] Para todos los propósitos oficiales, incluyendo relaciones internacionales y otros documentos legales, el gobierno irlandés usa el nombre de Ireland, además de utilizar Éire para documentos escritos en irlandés. Donegal Irish has many similarities to Scottish Gaelic. As a reformed and protestant church it is mainly calvinist and presbyterian in theological and liturgical matters. The province's early story extends further back than written records and survives mainly in legends such as the Ulster Cycle. In the 1690s, Scottish Presbyterians became a majority in Ulster, due to a large influx of them into the Province. The reply from the Minister for Posts and Telegraphs was:[17]. [23] According to the Dublin Companies Registration Office in 2008, over 500 company names incorporate the word Éire in some form. The Open Championship returned to Ulster, after 68 years, in 2019 at Royal Portrush Golf Club. [21], Ulster has a population of just over 2 million people and an area of 21,552 square kilometres (8,321 sq mi). It covers about five-sixths of the island of Ireland. There was some uncertainty about whether the síneadh fada (acute accent) should be written on upper-case letters. "The Plantation of Ulster (Irish: Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr)[1] was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulster – a province of Ireland – by … Ulaidh has historically been anglicised as Ulagh or Ullagh[17] and Latinised as Ulidia or Ultonia. From January 2007, the Irish government nameplates at meetings of the European Union have borne both Éire and Ireland, following the adoption of Irish as a working language of the European Union. A lot of IRA activity also took place at this time in County Donegal and the City of Derry, where one of the main Republican leaders was Peadar O'Donnell. oversees the sport in the Republic. While the traditional counties continue to demarcate areas of local government in the Republic of Ireland, this is no longer the case in Northern Ireland. Railway lines are run by Northern Ireland Railways (NIR). About half of Ulster's population lives in counties Antrim and Down. It was not until after the 1998 Good Friday Agreement that the UK government accepted the preferred name of simply "Ireland", at the same time as Ireland dropped its territorial claim over Northern Ireland. It is made up of nine counties: six of these constitute Northern Ireland (a part of the United Kingdom); the remaining three are in the Republic of Ireland. Es bestand aus neun historischen Grafschaften (engl. The county is divided into two constituencies: Donegal North-East and Donegal South-West, each with three T.D.'s. for Londonderry City. Settlements in Ulster with at least 14,000 inhabitants, listed in order of population: The GDP of the province of Ulster is around €50 billion. Six of Ulster's nine counties, Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry and Tyrone, including the former parliamentary boroughs of Belfast and Londonderry, form Northern Ireland which remained part of the United Kingdom after the partition of Ireland in 1921. The Church of Ireland (Irish: Eaglais na hÉireann Scots: Kirk o Airlann) is the national church. The 1859 Ulster Revival was a major Christian revival that spread throughout Ulster. The name Ulster has several possible derivations: from the Norse name ‘Uladztir’, which is an adaptation of Ulaidh and tir, the Irish for ’land’;[13] or similarly it may be derived from Ulaidh plus the Norse genitive s followed by the Irish tir. Its rulers resisted English encroachment but were defeated in the Nine Years' War (1594–1603). The war was partly due to a dispute over who was the rightful claimant to the British Throne, and thus the supreme monarch of the nascent British Empire. It is the second-largest (after Munster) and second-most populous (after Leinster) of Ireland's four provinces, with Belfast being its biggest city. The etymology of Ériu is disputed but may derive from the Proto-Indo-European root * h2uer, referring to flowing water. There have been cup competitions between I.F.A. – Motor Identification Letters", "Ceisteanna —Questions. While it was preserved in all-Irish texts, it was often omitted when short fragments of Irish appeared alone or in English texts. The IRA remained relatively quiescent in Ulster, with the exception of the south Armagh area, where Frank Aiken led it. County Fermanagh (/fərˈmænə/ fər-ma-nə; from Irish: Fir Manach or Fear Manach, meaning "men of Manach") is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland. The track of the County Donegal Railways Joint Committee (CDRJC) restored next to Lough Finn, near Fintown station. The geographical centre of Ulster lies between the villages of Pomeroy and Carrickmore in County Tyrone. Following the Anglo Irish treaty, the exact border between the new dominion of the Irish Free State and the future Northern Ireland, if it chose to opt out, was to be decided by the Irish Boundary Commission. The genitive case, Éireann (e.g. Before the 1937 Constitution, "Saorstát Éireann" (the Irish name of the Irish Free State) was generally used.[11]. Here they lived on the frontiers of America, carving their own world out of the wilderness. Three Ulster counties – Cavan, Donegal and Monaghan – form part of the Republic of Ireland. [32][33][34] These counties, though not officially designated as subject to Plantation, had suffered violent depopulation during the previous wars and proved attractive to Private Colonialists from nearby Britain. The archaeology of Ulster, formerly called Ulandia, gives examples of "ritual enclosures", such as the "Giant's Ring" near Belfast, which is an earth bank about 590 feet (180 m) in diameter and 15 feet (4.5 m) high, in the centre of which there is a dolmen.[30]. For the constituent country of the UK, see, Traditional province in the north of Ireland, Republicanism, rebellion and communal strife, Industrialisation, Home Rule and partition. George Best Belfast City Airport (sometimes referred to as "the City Airport" or "the Harbour Airport") is another, smaller airport which is located at Sydenham in Belfast. Local government in Northern Ireland is today demarcated by 11 districts. El artículo 4 de la Constitución de Irlanda, la cual fue adoptada en 1937, dice que «el nombre del Estado es Éire, o en inglés, Ireland». Borelands of Ulster (Ireland) Edit. Electorally, voting in the six Northern Ireland counties of Ulster tends to follow religious or sectarian lines; noticeable religious demarcation does not exist in the South Ulster counties of Cavan and Monaghan in the Republic of Ireland. Among the High Kings of Ireland were Áed Findliath (died 879), Niall Glúndub (died 919), and Domnall ua Néill (died 980), all of the Cenél nEógain. Based on these historical accounts, the Roman Empire called the island Hibernia. Ulster is one of the four Irish provinces. In Gaelic games (which include Gaelic football and hurling), Ulster counties play the Ulster Senior Football Championship and Ulster Senior Hurling Championship. A plan to re-link Sligo and Derry through Donegal has been postponed until at least 2030. . The areas where the most Americans reported themselves in the 2000 Census only as "American" with no further qualification (e.g. Ulster er en af de fire provinser, som øen Irland er opdelt i. Ulster omfatter den nordlige del, og størstedelen af Ulster er i politisk sammenhæng Nordirland.Ulster består af ni counties.De seks (Antrim, Armagh, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry og Tyrone) ligger i Nordirland, mens resten (Cavan, Donegal og Monaghan) er en del af Republikken Irland. Estimates suggest that up to 7000 Roman Catholics suffered expulsion from Ulster during this violence. and Finn Harps play against each other, the game is usually referred to as a 'North-West Derby'. Según los partidarios de Éire Nua, la formación de parlamentos provinciales con autoridades de autogobierono habría sido un buen método de conservar el statu quo dominante de protestantes en el Ulster pero sin mantener la división de la isla, ni dejar a los católicos del Ulster como ciudadanos de segunda. In football, the main competitions in which they compete with the other Irish counties are the All-Ireland Senior Football Championship and National Football League, while the Ulster club champions represent the province in the All-Ireland Senior Club Football Championship. The former is the most capped British and Irish Lion of all time, having completed four tours with the Lions in the sixties and seventies. The Meic Lochlainn were in 1241 overthrown by their kin, the clan Ó Néill (see O'Neill dynasty). The Socialist Republic of Eire and Ulster (Irish: Poblacht Shóisialach na hÉireann agus Uladh) also known as SR Eire and Ulster, or simply SR Ireland. Counties). Cricket is also played in Ulster, especially in Northern Ireland and East Donegal. In the latter part of the century, Belfast briefly overtook Dublin as the island's largest city. The historic Flag of Ulster served as the basis for the Ulster Banner (often referred to as the Flag of Northern Ireland), which was the flag of the Government of Northern Ireland until the proroguing of the Stormont parliament in 1973. Paradoxically however, this period also saw much sectarian violence between Roman Catholics and Protestants, principally members of the Church of Ireland (Anglicans, who practised the British state religion and had rights denied to both Presbyterians and Roman Catholics), notably the "Battle of the Diamond" in 1795, a faction fight between the rival "Defenders" (Roman Catholic) and "Peep O'Day Boys" (Anglican), which led to over 100 deaths and to the founding of the Orange Order. Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, is one of the provinces of Ireland, located in the north of the island. The main railway lines linking to and from Belfast Great Victoria Street and Belfast Central are: Only five Irish counties, all in Southern and Western Ulster, currently have no mainline railway. oversees the sport in N.I., while the Football Association of Ireland (the F.A.I.) [8] Using the genitive form Éireann as an adjective, the UK media would refer to "Eireann Ministers"[9] and the "Eireann Army". The Ó Domhnaill (O'Donnell) dynasty were Ulster's second most powerful clan from the early thirteenth-century through to the beginning of the seventeenth-century. It was then that the provinces of Ailech, Airgialla, and Ulaidh would all merge largely into what would become the modern province of Ulster. The whole province fields a team to play the other provinces in the Railway Cup in both football and hurling. The Ó Néill's were from then on established as Ulster's most powerful Gaelic family. The Gaelic leaders of Ulster, the O'Neills and O'Donnells, finding their power under English suzerainty limited, decamped en masse in 1607 (the Flight of the Earls) to Roman Catholic Europe. This led to the founding of many of Ulster's towns. Irish politician Bernard Commons TD suggested to the Dáil in 1950 that the government examine "the tourist identification plate bearing the letters EIR ... with a view to the adoption of identification letters more readily associated with this country by foreigners". Úlster (en irlandés, Ulaidh, pronunciado ; en inglés, Ulster, pronunciado [ˈʌlstəɹ]) es una de las «provincias históricas» de la isla de Irlanda. Ulster also has another Major winner in Graeme McDowell, who also won the US Open in 2010. Avant l'invasion normande de 1169, l'Irlande gaélique comprenait toute l'île.Par la suite, il comprenait les parties du pays n'étant pas sous domination étrangère. The only major Orange Order march in the Republic of Ireland takes place every July in the village of Rossnowlagh, near Ballyshannon, in the south of County Donegal. This group (founded in Belfast) dedicated itself to founding a non-sectarian and independent Irish republic. This movement also set up the Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF). Ireland has historically been divided into four provinces: Connacht, Leinster, Munster and Ulster. Unlike the other provinces, Ulster has a high percentage of Protestants, making up almost half of its population. [18] The latter two have yielded the terms Ulidian and Ultonian. Hurling teams play in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship, National Hurling League and All-Ireland Senior Club Hurling Championship. Elle couvre 14 139 km2, soit environ un sixième de l'île entière et 5 % du Royaume-Uni. However, the war was also a part of the greater War of the Grand Alliance, fought between King Louis XIV of France and his allies, and a European-wide coalition, the Grand Alliance, led by Prince William of Orange and Emperor Leopold I of the Holy Roman Empire, supported by the Vatican and many other states. Ulster's biggest city, Belfast, has an urban population of over half a million inhabitants, making it the second-largest city on the island of Ireland and the 10th largest urban area in the UK. LIrlande du NordNote 3 (en anglais : Northern Ireland ; en irlandais : Tuaisceart Éireann ; en scots d'Ulster : Norlin Airlann) est l'une des quatre nations constitutives du Royaume-Uni, occupant le nord-est de l'île d'Irlande qu'elle partage avec l'État d'Irlande indépendant. Counties shaded in pink are in Northern Ireland. After the Norman invasion of Ireland in the twelfth century, the east of the province fell by conquest to Norman barons, first De Courcy (died 1219), then Hugh de Lacy (1176–1243), who founded the Earldom of Ulster based on the modern counties of Antrim and Down. [7] However, the term "Eirish" was also used by some writers in the US, who referred to "the Eirish people". [26], Most people in Ulster speak English. Eire Country ID EIR Capital province Meath/Ulster Primary Culture Gaelic State Religion Catholic Techgroup Latin Aristocracy 8 Centralisation 0 Innovative 3 Mercantilism 5 Offensive 7 Land 6 Quality 4 Serfdom 7 Eire is a country in Europa Universalis II. The biggest lake in the British Isles, Lough Neagh, lies in eastern Ulster. A minority also speak Irish, and there are Gaeltacht (Irish-speaking regions) in southern County Londonderry, the Gaeltacht Quarter of Belfast and in Donegal, where 25% of the total Gaeltacht population of Ireland is located. 82 of 1958.[15][16]. The province of Ulaidh would survive restricted to the east of modern Ulster until the Norman invasion in the late 12th century. Hay nueve condados en la provincia. Private plantation by wealthy landowners began in 1606,[32][33][34] while the official plantation controlled by King James I of England (who was also King James VI of Scots) began in 1609. Partition of Ireland, first mooted in 1912, was introduced with the enactment of the Government of Ireland Act 1920, which gave a form of "Home rule" self-government to two areas, Southern Ireland, with its capital at Dublin, and "Northern Ireland", consisting of six of Ulster's central and eastern counties, both within a continuing United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. William Sherard (1659–1728) was the first biologist in Ulster.[45][46]. Ulster has produced many great players over the years, from Fred Daly winning The Open Championship in 1947 at the Royal Liverpool Golf Club, Hoylake to most recently Rory McIlroy winning the US Open and Darren Clarke winning The Open Championship in 2011. A Ilha da Irlanda (em irlandês: Éire; em escocês do Ulster: Airlann; em inglês: Ireland; também conhecida como Ilha Esmeralda por suas vastas estepes verde-claras) é a terceira maior ilha da Europa e a vigésima maior do mundo. In the ensuing wars (1641–1653, fought against the background of civil war in England, Scotland and Ireland), Ulster became a battleground between the Colonialists and the native Irish. In his book Geographia (circa 150 AD), Claudius Ptolemaeus called the island Iouernia (written Ἰουερνία; ou represented /w/). Ulster Ulster (Iers-Gaelisch: Cúige Uladh) is een van de vier oorspronkelijke provincies van Ierland. Dissatisfaction with this led to the Irish War of Independence, which formally ceased on 11 July 1921. [22][23] Most Irish nationalists object to the use of Ulster in this context. This, and the subsequent Irish War of Independence, led to the partition of Ireland. and F.A.I. Low-level violence, however, continued in Ulster, causing Michael Collins in the south to order a boycott of Northern products in protest at attacks on the Nationalist community there. The Scots-Irish soon became the dominant culture of the Appalachians from Pennsylvania to Georgia. This allowed the English Crown to plant Ulster with more loyal English and Scottish planters, a process which began in earnest in 1610. The other overkingdoms in Ulster were Airgíalla and Ailech. The modern Irish Éire evolved from the Old Irish word Ériu, which was the name of a Gaelic goddess. The historic Great Northern Railway of Ireland connected them. At the start of the war, Irish Jacobites controlled most of Ireland for James II, with the exception of the Williamite strongholds at Derry and at Enniskillen in Ulster. The province's main airport is Belfast International Airport (popularly called Aldergrove Airport), which is located at Aldergrove, 11.5 miles northwest of Belfast near Antrim. Ulster became the most thoroughly Gaelic and independent of Ireland's provinces. The war in Ulster ended with the defeat of the native army at the Battle of Scarrifholis, near Newmills on the western outskirts of Letterkenny, County Donegal, in 1650, as part of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland conducted by Oliver Cromwell and the New Model Army, the aim of which was to expel all native Irish to the Province of Connaught.[39]. The Plantation of Ulster (Irish: Plandáil Uladh) was the organised colonisation (or plantation) of Ulster by people from Great Britain (especially Presbyterians from Scotland). [17][18] The minister stated, "The word on the stamp ... does not mean 'eire' and it is not understood to mean 'eire' by anybody except Davern. Northern Ireland's current politics originate from these late 19th century disputes over Home Rule that would have devolved some powers of government to Ireland, and which Ulster Protestants usually opposed—fearing for their religious rights calling it "Rome Rule" in an autonomous Roman Catholic-dominated Ireland and also not trusting politicians from the agrarian south and west to support the more industrial economy of Ulster. King James I then colonised Ulster with English-speaking Protestant settlers from Great Britain, in the Plantation of Ulster. Bernd Biege. [11] Lough Neagh, in the east, is the largest lake in the British Isles, while Lough Erne in the west is one of its largest lake networks.